Ottoman Empire – 5 Kurush – Mahmud II – 1808 (26)
Mahmud II was a sultan famous for his reforms of the Ottoman Empire. Under his reign, the Janissaries were brutally eliminated and a modern army was established to replace them. This, along with other reforms, formed the core of the Tanzimat, or the reorganization of the Ottoman state. In addition, Greece became independent during the reign of Mahmud II.